Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6552 Spring 2024

Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6552 Spring 2024

Download Aiou solved assignment 2024 free autumn/spring, aiou updates solved assignments. Get free AIOU All Level Assignment from aiousolvedassignment.

Course: Textbook Development-I (6552)
Semester: Spring, 2024

Q.1 Describe the history of textbooks and its effects on today’s textbooks?

A textbook is an organized body of material useful for the formal study of a subject area. A good textbook is distinguished by the following pedagogical features:

  • A discrete, well-bounded scope: all the material should relate to a solid understanding of the subject, usually mixing theory and practice for each topic as it covers the subject domain.
  • Use of examples and problems: the student should be able to better grasp each presented concept by following examples, and then applying the concept in structured exercises or problems.
  • An internally consistent style: after the first few sections, there should be little or no surprises for the student in terms of layout and presentation of material. The texts user can get comfortable with the layout, the tempo of presentation, and the pattern of figures, illustrations, examples and exercises.
  • Utility for future reference: once reviewed, the textbook should isolate material that is useful to the future application of subject knowledge in well organized appendices and tables.
  • A structure that makes sense: the textbook is not just a collection of useful material, it is a guide to the student for an order of review which will aid in mastering the subject area.

Textbook Structure

Topics are presented in major parts, chapters, sections and subsections that are organized in a way that facilitates understanding. This means that the text’s organization is based on the intersection of two requirements. The first of these are the requirements of the subject domain. Since most textbooks are developed by, or based on the contributions of subject matter experts, this requirement is usually well attended to. The second requirement is defined by the limits of the student’s mind. Cognition is a common human ability, but its needs and limits are frequently ignored by those who have already mastered a subject area. To make the best use of the student’s abilities, some rules can be spelled out for the structuring and presentation of ideas, concepts, and material.
These rules should include:

  1. Rule of Frameworks: Maintain a consistent structure. The structure acts as a mental roadmap that allows learners to navigate within and through the subject domain. To best aid in understanding, the structure should be visible early on.
  2. Rule of Meaningful Names: Create and use consistent titles and terminologies. Use terminology that is common in your discipline. These names are critical to the ability to recall or retrieve the things we know and remember.
  3. Rule of Manageable Numbers. Limit the amount of information introduced at one time. For new material, four to six new elements are a reasonable limit. Most of us are limited in our ability to absorb new material. As we become familiar with part of a subject domain, this number expands.
  4. Rule of Hierarchy. New knowledge builds on learned knowledge. When introducing new material, only refer to foundational material if it is relevant to the new material. The student needs to understand the foundational knowledge before being introduced to a new concept. When new concepts are introduced they should be explicitly connected to the foundational material.
  5. Rule of Repetition. Repeat important concepts. For example, frameworks and important hierarchies are repeated as many as five or six times; frequently used elements are repeated three or four times; and elements of lesser utility may not be repeated at all. There is a pattern of repetition that aids in promoting the elements of a subject from short-term to long-term memory.

As you visit classrooms, you probably notice that most, if not all, of those classrooms use a standard textbook series. The reasons for this are many, depending on the design and focus of the curriculum, the mandates of the administration, and/or the level of expertise on the part of classroom teachers.

Textbooks provide you with several advantages in the classroom:

  • Textbooks are especially helpful for beginning teachers. The material to be covered and the design of each lesson are carefully spelled out in detail.
  • Textbooks provide organized units of work. A textbook gives you all the plans and lessons you need to cover a topic in some detail.
  • A textbook series provides you with a balanced, chronological presentation of information.
  • Textbooks are a detailed sequence of teaching proceduresthat tell you what to do and when to do it. There are no surprises—everything is carefully spelled out.
  • Textbooks provide administrators and teachers with a complete program. The series is typically based on the latest research and teaching strategies.
  • Good textbooks are excellent teaching aids. They’re a resource for both teachers and students.
Weakness Student Difficulty Ways of Overcoming Problem
The textbook is designed as a the sole source of information. Students only see one perspective on a concept or issue. Provide students with lots of information sources such as trade books, CD-ROMS, websites, encyclopedias, etc.
Textbook is old or outdated. Information shared with students is not current or relevant. Use textbook sparingly or supplement with other objectives.
Textbook questions tend to be low level or fact-based. Students assume that learning is simply a collection of facts and figures. Ask higher-level questions and provide creative thinking and problem-solving activities.
Textbook doesn’t take students’ background knowledge into account. Teacher does not tailor lessons to the specific attributes and interests of students. Discover what students know about a topic prior to teaching. Design the lesson based on that knowledge.
Reading level of the textbook is too difficult. Students cannot read or understand important concepts. Use lots of supplemental objectives such as library books, Internet, CD-ROMs, etc.
The textbook has all the answer to all the questions. Students tend to see learning as an accumulation of correct answers. Involve students in problem-solving activities, higher-level thinking questions, and extending activities.


When thinking about how you want to use textbooks, consider the following:

  • Use the textbook as a resource for students, but not the only resource.
  • Use a textbook as a guide, not a mandate, for instruction.
  • Be free to modify, change, eliminate, or add to the material in the textbook.
  • Supplement the textbook with lots of outside readings.
  • Supplement teacher information in the textbook with teacher resource books; attendance at local, regional, or national conferences; articles in professional periodicals; and conversations with experienced teachers.

The front matter is the introductory section of your textbook and the first thing readers see. If you’re using an authoring platform such as Pressbooks, the system will set up some of these sections for you, including a copyright page and a table of contents. The following table lists the items typically included in the front matter and the order in which they appear. While most open textbooks will have many of these elements, very few will have all of them. Only include the sections relevant to your textbook.

Front Matter
Item Responsibility Purpose
Half title Publisher Includes just the title of the book on the recto (front side of the page) with a blank verso (back side of the page).
Title page Publisher Book title is repeated along with subtitle (if any), author(s) and/or editor(s), and illustrator (if any).
Copyright page Publisher On the verso of title page, the following may be included:

·         open-licence information (type, definition, where to obtain free copy of book)

·         if an adaptation, the changes made

·         attribution for cover image

·         publisher’s name and address

·         copyright notice

·         ISBN

·         date of publication and publishing history

·         printing information

Disclaimers Publisher These can appear on the colophon or separately after the title page.
Dedication Author The person or people for whom the author has written or dedicated the book.
Table of contents Publisher A list of all parts and chapters (or chapters and chapter sections) together with their respective page numbers. Front-matter items that appear after the table of contents are also included.
About this book Publisher This page is used to define open textbooks and other OER, and any other unique features for this type of book. Funding provided by the author’s institution, a public body, or philanthropic organization can also be noted.
List of illustrations and/or tables Publisher This summary is useful for the reader.
Foreword Expert (not the author) The forward is typically written by an outside expert in the field at the request of the primary author. The foreword author’s name, place, and date are included at the end of the statement.
Preface Author The author uses the preface to explain why and how they came to write the book. They might also describe their expertise in the subject area.
Acknowledgements Author This is a list of individuals whom the author acknowledges for their contributions and assistance.
Introduction Author This introduction describes the book contents as a whole. The book’s theme, layout, special features, and how instructors can make the best use of it, can also be included. The author may also create a “How to Use This Book” section if more fitting.
List of abbreviations Publisher This list of abbreviations and their meanings is useful for the reader.
Accessibility statement Publisher If the book has been written and designed to be accessible, provide a description of how this was done and various options people have when accessing the book. Indicate the standards that have been followed, and provide contact information for where people can report any accessibility issues. (See Accessibility and Inclusion.)
Publisher’s, translator’s, or editor’s notes  Publisher This information provides background on various aspects of the book’s creation depending on who writes the notes.

Free AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 6552 Spring 2024

Q.2 Describe ESL books evaluation and textbook selection for classroom instruction? Also review ESL programs for improving skills.

Textbook evaluation can be divided into separate phases: pre-use (also known as pre-evaluation), during use (or in-use) and after use (or post-use).

Pre-evaluation: analysis
Most textbook evaluation schemes distinguish two essential stages that are necessary at the pre-evaluation phase: a description or analysis phase, and an interpretation or evaluation phase. In the first phase, the contents of the book have to be carefully described in terms of scope and sequence, organization, and the types of texts and exercises contained within. The analysis phase will involve identifying these kinds of information:

  • Aims and objectives of the book.
  • Level of the book.
  • Skills addressed.
  • Topics covered.
  • Situations it is intended for.
  • Target learners.
  • Time required.
  • Components.
  • Number and length of units.
  • Organization of units.

Pre-evaluation: evaluation
This stage of evaluation is more difficult since it involves subjective judgements, and these often differ from one person to another. For this reason, group evaluations are often useful. A number of checklists have been developed to assist at this stage of Pre-evaluation. However, checklists involve somewhat subjective categories and usually need to be adapted to reflect the particular book under consideration. In general, textbook evaluation addresses the following issues:

Goals: What does the book seek to achieve and how clearly are its learning outcomes identified?
Syllabus: What syllabus framework is the book based on? Is the syllabus adequate or would it need to be supplemented (e.g. through additional activities for grammar or pronunciation)?
Theoretical framework: What language-learning theory is the book based on? Does it present an informed understanding of any underlying theory?
Methodology: What methodology is the book based on? Is it pedagogically sound?
Language content: What kind of language does it contain and how authentic and relevant is the content? Is it an appropriate level of difficulty for the learners?
Other content: What topics and themes are covered and are they appropriate for the target learners?
Organization: Is the book well organized into units and lessons, and within lessons are the purposes of activities clearly identified? Do units have a coherent, consistent organization and do they gradually progress in difficulty throughout the book?
Teacher appeal: Does the book look easy to teach and is it self-contained, or would the teacher need to develop supplementary materials to use with it? Would it require special training or could it be used by teachers with limited experience, and by both native-speaker and non-native-speaker teachers?
Learner appeal: How engaging would it be for learners? How would they rate the design of the book (including the photos and illustrations), the topics and the kinds of activities included? Is the material clearly relevant to their perceived language-learning needs? Are self-study components included?
Ancilliaries: What other components does the book include, such as teacher’s book, workbook, tests, and digital and web-based support? Are all of these components published and available?
Price: Is the book affordable for the intended buyers?

When a group-evaluation process is used, all of the issues above and others specific to the teaching context can be discussed, and if several books are being considered, a consensus reached on the book that most suits teachers’ needs. The decision may not rest entirely on the book’s merits. For example, if students are known to use a certain coursebook in private high schools, the book may be rejected for use in private-language programmes that attract university students.

Evaluating during and after use
In-use evaluation focuses partially on the global needs of the institution: if testing is important, the comprehensive nature of the tests may be evaluated closely; if lab work is important, the pedagogical effectiveness and comprehensiveness of the online components may be evaluated in depth; if the school transitions students from a younger-learners programme to an adult programme, the ease of the transition from the coursebook for younger learners may be reviewed.

In terms of the classroom experience, however, and overall learner satisfaction, in-use evaluation focuses on how well the book functions in the classroom, and depends on monitoring the book whilst it is being used by collecting information from both teachers and students. Information collected can serve the following purposes:

  • To provide feedback on how well the book works in practice and how effectively it achieves it aims.
  • To document effective ways of using the textbook and assist other teachers in using it.
  • To keep a record of adaptations that were made to the book.

This monitoring process may involve ongoing consultation with teachers to address issues that arise as the book is being used and to resolve problems that may occur. For example:

  • Is there too much or too little material?
  • Is it at the right level for students?
  • What aspects of the book are proving least and most effective?
  • What do teachers and students like most or least about the book?

Various approaches to monitoring the use of a book are possible:

  • Observation: Classroom visits to see how teachers use the book and to find out how the book influences the quality of teaching and learning in the lesson.
  • Record of use: Documentation of what parts of the book were used or not used and what adaptations or supplements were made to the book and why.
  • Feedback sessions: Group meetings in which teachers discuss their experiences with the book.
  • Written reports: The use of reflection sheets, or other forms of written feedback (e.g. blogs and online forums), in which teachers make brief notes about what worked well and what did not work well, or give suggestions on using the book.
  • Teachers’ reviews: Written reviews by a individual or groups of teachers on their experiences with the book, and what they liked or didn’t like about it.
  • Students’ reviews: Comments from students on their experiences with the book.

Post-use evaluation serves to provide information that will help decide if the book will continue to be used for future programmes.

Free AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 6552 Spring 2024

Q.3 Discuss textbook management and publication process in detail. Highlight the procedural issues.

Publishing Culture comprises of the virtues and codes that retain in any particular nation, which becomes the traditional value of that nation. Every country has its own Publishing Culture. The Publishing Culture of Pakistan is very assorted, which each ethnic group deriving its identity from its characteristics cultural values and norms which eventually makes it distinct from others.

Beginning of 20th century, western Publishing Culture has increased; a step towards disaster. Westernization has been spread throughout our country because of the media. The TV channels show various program holders and different characters in the dramas wearing westernized clothes. In addition to this, intimate scenes are becoming more common in programs.

Moreover, Urdu or English? A dilemma most Pakistanis are facing today especially the youth. Each country has its own mother language and they are not just a way of communication but also a part of their Publishing Culture. Most of the people are not proud to speak our own language now and this is mostly seen in the middle and upper class. Most Pakistanis are moving away from their mother language and adopting English. By adopting English we are not just adopting their language but also their Publishing Culture, values, customs and traditions and in the process are forgetting our own Publishing Culture. This confusion started when the British came to rule our land and since then people have been trying to copy their language and have associated it with prestige and class. Even our education is now focusing too much on English at all levels. It is true that English is an international language and is used worldwide, everybody should know it in order to excel abroad. Hence we need to find a balance between our choices of language between one that represents our Publishing Culture and the other that will take us to international markets.

Don’t let westernization win! It is hard to steadiness in Publishing Culture and language we are adopting but we have to poise it. Most of people of our society are being taken drugs, alcohol and prostitution for the sake of fashion and just to express modernism. Despite their openness, no actions are being taken to eliminate them in our society. Western Publishing Culture drive us away from our Publishing Culture as well as our religion.

Westernization has influenced every aspect of daily life ranging from cuisine to the basic human right. Westernization has not only created amongst the public but it was a step forward towards modernization and modernization in no sense can be regarded as harmful. On the other hand too much interest of youth towards western influences can be regarded as a negative impact on the society.

If we want to live with honor, dignity and secure our identity, we have to proudly own and love our country. If we want our upcoming generation should breathe freely as an independent nation in the world, then, today we have to work in the best interest of Pakistan. We have to rebuild our characters and minds to take the track which leads Pakistan to the destination our ancestors had dreamt of. To minimize and resist the effects of western and Indian channels, it is suggested that local channels should be strengthened and programmes should have better content. These channels should produce and broadcast quality programmes that could help in the promotion of Pakistani values and traditions and improve the image of Pakistan at international level.

Self-publishing companies aren’t publishers. On the contrary, they’re the services that enable you to get your book out of a folder in your computer and distribute it to the world for people to read. Of course, it gets a bit more complex than that, since there are several types of companies that can realize this for you. Pretty much all of them fall into three basic categories:

  • Book retailers, such as Amazon and B&N Press, are the online bookstores in which your book will be discoverable and sold. Each big book retailer generally provides a branded eBook publishing platform for you to individually upload your book.
  • Aggregators, such as Draft2Digital and Smashwords, allow you to distribute to a bunch of book retailers all at once. This will probably save you time and energy, though you’ll need to pay an extra fee for their services.
  • Print-on-demand distributorsare full-suite self-publishing companies that include print-on-demand services on top of distribution options. Naturally, they’re particularly useful if you’re planning to distribute a printed book!

As we mentioned, you really are your own publisher throughout this whole process. That means that you get to retain all creative control over your books, and you get to make all of the business decisions. Generally, you’ll get to keep most of the profits (most book retailers and aggregators won’t charge you until a copy of your book actually sells, and then they’ll take a cut of the royalties.) But what’s best for your book will depend on your personal situation, and we’ll get to that in the rest of this post.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6552 Spring 2024

Q.4 Develop criteria to analyze the contents and structure of a secondary level textbook keeping in view the genre of textbook structure.

  1. Rule of frameworks

Memory and understanding are promoted by the use of a structure that mimics the structures we all use within our minds to store information. Before we can use or master a subject, we have to have a mental road map that allows us to navigate within and through the subject domain. The text can best aid understanding by making this framework visible early on within each section or topic. The extent to which the student understands that they are using a framework, and knows what that framework is, is important as they internalize and make use of the material presented.

  1. Rule of meaningful names

Everything we know is tagged with an index or a title. These indices are critical to the ability to recall or retrieve the things we know and remember. Each concept, process, technique or fact presented should aid the student to assign a meaningful name for it in their own mental organization of the material. To be most useful, these names shouldn’t have to be relearned at higher levels of study. The names assigned by the text should be useful in that they support some future activities: communication with other practitioners, reference within the text to earlier mastered material, and conformity to the framework used for the subject. Each unique element of the subject domain should have a unique name, and each name should be used for only one element.

  1. Rule of manageable numbers

When we learn from an outline, an illustration, or an example, most of us are limited in our ability to absorb new material. As we become familiar with part of a subject domain this number expands, but for new material four to six new elements is a reasonable limit. If a chapter outline contains twelve items, the student will have forgotten the outline before getting to the last item. When a text fails to support this rule, it requires even a diligent student to needlessly repeat material.

  1. Rule of hierarchy

Our mental frameworks are hierarchical. Learning is aided by using the student’s ability to couple or link new material with that already mastered. When presenting new domains for hierarchical understanding, the rules for meaningful names and manageable numbers have increased importance and more limited application. A maximum of three levels of hierarchy should be presented at one time. The root should be already mastered, the current element under consideration clearly examined, and lower levels outlined only to the extent that they help the student understand the scope or importance of the current element. This area is supplemented by two more rules within this rule: those of Connectivity and Cohesion. Connectivity requires consideration of what the student likely knows at this point. The more already mastered elements that one can connect with a new element, the easier it is to retain. Cohesion requires that the characteristics of new elements as they are presented be tightly coupled.

  1. Rule of repetition

Most people learn by repetition, and only a few with native genius can achieve mastery without it. There is a pattern of repetition that aids in promoting the elements of a subject from short-term to long-term memory. Implementations of this rule may mean that frameworks and important hierarchies are repeated as many as five or six times, while frequently used elements are repeated three or four times, and elements of lesser utility may not be repeated at all. The first repetition should normally occur within a day of first presentation, followed by a gradually decreasing frequency. Exercises and review sections are ideally contributing to a designed repetition pattern.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6552 Autumn 2024

5 Rules of Textbook Development long description:

  1. The rule of frameworks means maintain a consistent structure. The text can best aid understanding by making this framework visible early on.
  2. The rule of meaningful names means create and use consistent titles and terminologies. The names are critical to the ability to recall or retrieve the things we know and remember.
  3. The rule of manageable numbers means limit the amount of new information introduced at one time.
  4. Rule of hierarchy means new knowledge builds on learned knowledge. The student needs to understand the foundational knowledge before being introduced to a new concept. When new concepts are introduced the should be explicitly connected to the foundational material.
  5. The rule of repetition means repeat important concepts. There is a pattern of repetition that aids in promoting the elements of a subject from short-term to long-term memory.

Textbooks provide you with several advantages in the classroom:

  • Textbooks are especially helpful for beginning teachers. The material to be covered and the design of each lesson are carefully spelled out in detail.
  • Textbooks provide organized units of work. A textbook gives you all the plans and lessons you need to cover a topic in some detail.
  • A textbook series provides you with a balanced, chronological presentation of information.
  • Textbooks are a detailed sequence of teaching proceduresthat tell you what to do and when to do it. There are no surprises—everything is carefully spelled out.
  • Textbooks provide administrators and teachers with a complete program. The series is typically based on the latest research and teaching strategies.
  • Good textbooks are excellent teaching aids. They’re a resource for both teachers and students.

Q.5 what is the use of instructional objectives in development of textbook? How will you define chapter openness and closeness?

A key feature of effective teaching is the selection of instructional objectives that meet the needs of students and fit the constraints of the teaching and learning environment. There are many pressures for educators to match the audiovisual stimuli of television, computers, and electronic games with which students are experienced. The speed of personal computers and the ease of authoring systems permit instructors to design and customize computer-based audiovisual presentations and to develop computer-based assignments for their students. The tremendous increases in rates of information transfer, access to the Internet, and posting of objectives on the World Wide Web give instructors and students an almost limitless supply of resource material. In addition, the ease of electronic communications between an instructor and students, and among students, provides new opportunities for sharing questions, answers, and discussions during a course. At the same time, there remains a major role for student use of textbooks and for instructional use of demonstrations, films, videos, slides, and overhead transparencies.

Carefully scripted presentations and activities run the risk of emphasizing teacher delivery rather than student learning. Carefully planned and prepared instructional resources sometimes tempt instructors to race ahead and to cover more. The rapid-fire presentations combined with audiovisual overload can tempt students to remain intellectually passive. One way to avoid this is to intersperse activities which assess student understanding and encourage reflection and critical thinking. Another possibility is to reduce the pace of the class session, by pausing periodically to invite questions.

Instructional resources usually fall into one of two categories: student-centered and teacher-centered. In the student-centered model, instructional resources can be used for tutorials, problem solving, discovery, and review. In the teacher-centered model, resources are used for presentations of supplementary or primary material in the classroom. Information technology can also be used for communication and for information retrieval.

The mode of teaching so common today—the lecture-text-exam approach-is an artifact of centuries of European education. The professor’s main role before the wide availability of the printing press was to lecture on information obtained from a rare copy of an often ancient book. Despite the fears of the faculty at the University of Salamanca during the sixteenth century, the textbook rapidly became a useful supplement to the class lecture rather than its replacement. Today a textbook is available for almost every college science class. As McKeachie (1994) notes, ”. . . my years of experience in attempting to assess teaching effectiveness have led me to think that the textbook, more than any other element of the course, determines student learning.”

Books are a highly portable form of information and can be accessed when, where, and at whatever rate and level of detail the reader desires. Research indicates that, for many people, visual processing (i.e., reading) is faster than auditory processing (i.e., listening to lectures), making textbooks a very effective resource (McKeachie, 1994). Reading can be done slowly, accompanied by extensive note taking, or it can be done rapidly, by skimming and skipping. There are advantages to both styles, and you may find it useful to discuss their merits with your students.

One important aspect of any science class is helping the student to make sense of the mass of information and ideas in a field. This can be done by showing students how to arrange information in a meaningful hierarchy of related major and minor concepts. Well-chosen textbooks help students understand how information and ideas can be organized.

Textbooks have several major limitations. Although a well-written book can engage and hold student interest, it is not inherently interactive. However, if students are encouraged to ask questions while they read, seek answers within the text, and identify other sources to explore ideas not contained in the text, they will become active readers and gain the maximum benefit from their textbook. In order to meet the needs of a broad audience, texts are often so thick that they overwhelm students seeking key information. Texts are often forced to rely on historical or dated examples, and they rarely give a sense of the discovery aspects and disorganization of information facing modern researchers.

Science textbooks have evolved considerably from the descriptive and historical approaches common before World War II. Today’s texts are far more sophisticated, less historical, and contain more facts than in the past, with complex language and terminology (Bailar, 1993). Illustrations and mathematical expressions are more common. Emphasis has shifted toward principles and theory. Modern texts attempt to deal with issues of process as well as matters of fact or content. They are replete with essays, sidebars, diagrams, illustrations, worked examples, and problems and questions at many different levels. One result of these changes is that the average book length has increased two to four times in the past several decades.

In response to the need for quality science textbooks for all students, not just science majors, some authors are returning to descriptive and historical approaches. Generally, books for science literacy courses describe important ideas and discoveries, present a limited number of fundamental concepts, and emphasize the links among different facts and principles. Others (e.g., Trefil and Hazen, 1995) take an interdisciplinary approach, by covering a range of science disciplines in a coherent, connected manner.

Research on the effectiveness of textbooks has focused on two general areas: text structure and layout. The study of text structure has focused on how the reader builds cognitive representations from text. Recent work categorizes the structure of science text as either a proof-first or a principle-first organization (Dee-Lucas and Larkin, 1990). The proof-first organization develops a proof or argument that builds to a conclusion, usually in the form of a fundamental concept, principle, or law. In principle-first organization, a concept or principle is stated explicitly, then the evidence needed to support it is presented. The prevalence of the proof-first structure in contemporary textbooks may be due to the fact that most college science textbooks are written by scientists with little formal training in education. They present science the way it is practiced by experts. However, studies by Dee-Lucas and Larkin (1990) indicate that the principle-first structure is more effective for long-term retention and understanding by novice readers.

Layout and illustrations are important predictors of a text’s effectiveness. One of the most effective types of illustration, especially for students with low verbal aptitude, is a simple multicolor line drawing. Although more visually appealing, and more prevalent in the current textbook market, realistic drawings or photographs are less effective at enhancing student learning. The organization of information on a page also affects student learning.


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